Have You Ever Tried To Know That How Refrigerator Works? As we already know that it’s a totally technical part. But before that, I would like to share my short story with all of you.

When I was young, I didn’t know that something called a Refrigerator helps to make ice at any time we want. But by the time it became very common to have a Refrigerator. Even nowadays almost everyone has a fridge. I used to think it magic that this small box cools the things and used to think, How it cool the food and drinks?

So without wasting time I will tell you How does a Refrigerator work? The principle on how does a refrigerator work is quite simple. When you compress gases in a small volume, it becomes hot. because you have to work to push their molecules together. When you expand a gas, It is suddenly ready to take over much more volume, The heat energy its molecules contain is now divided into a very large amount. That is why the temperature of the gas falls and it becomes very cold.

As you know to keep our food fresh A low temperature must be maintained in the environment to reduce the reproduction rate of harmful bacteria. A refrigerator works to transfer heat from inside to outside, to keep a cool and fresh environment for your foods and beverages.

First of all to know how Refrigerator Working Principle you need to understand the Components of Refrigerators Because the refrigerator consists of many components.

Main Components of the Refrigerator

As there are many components of the fridge we will see each and every component one by one with their functions.


The compressor is the main component of every refrigerator. in other words it is also known as the main engine of the refrigerator. it’s a device that compresses the refrigerant and also helps to circulate the flow in the whole system. This compressor releases high pressure and high-temperature refrigerant in the form of vapor towards the condenser for further process Hope you know by now how the Refrigerator compressor works.


This is the second component of the refrigerator after the compressor. The high pressure and high-temperature refrigerant sent by the compressor in the form of vapour, that vapour is converted into liquid after getting cold with the help of a condenser. As you know that condenser is a kind of thin pipe in which the vapour transferred by the compressor is traveled. And by traveling in that condenser pipe that vapour gets converted into liquid.


It’s the next component of the refrigerator. this component is made only for the purpose of filtering the liquid. And also there is a silicon small ball that helps to absorb wetness. A filter-drier in a refrigeration or air conditioning system has two essential functions: one, to adsorb system contaminants, such as water, which can create acids, and two, to provide physical filtration. Evaluation of each factor is necessary to ensure proper and economical drier design.

Capillary Tube or Expansion Valve

This tube is also known as Expansion Valve. The main purpose of this tube is to slow down the speed of the refrigerant. As we have already seen that the liquid traveling in the condenser as well as in the filter is high pressure. And the diameter of this is the tube is low. In other words, it takes only a limited amount of liquid from the filter at a time. So this is the main concept behind using this tube to lower the pressure of liquid coming from the condenser and filter.


The main function of this evaporator component is to absorb the heat from things or places and providing the cooling effect. So in this process, the liquid is coming from the expansion valve. When it enters into the evaporator then the heat of that liquid is absorbed by the evaporator. And after that, the liquid gets converted into vapor form. It cools the area around it, producing the proper environment for storing food. At the end that vapor is released towards the compressor.

Other Components of Refrigerator

Apart from these components, there are also some other components that are used in refrigerators. Let’s see what are those.

Cooling Fan

The main purpose of this cooling fan is to circulate the cold air to the freezer as well as each and every corner inside the refrigerator. many old refrigerators and small types of refrigerators have no fan in their refrigeration system. but nowadays latest frost-free refrigerators have two cooling fans. first is under the refrigerator to cool the compressor force Air through the exterior coils. the second one is inside the refrigerator and moves air around the coils. This second fan helps provide more cooling and also helps in the defrost process.


This component is also known as a temperature sensor and typically found inside the refrigerator and have a knob that allows users to adjust the temperature setting Once a user sets the desired temperature, the thermostat maintains that temperature by controlling the flow of electricity to the compressor. When there is overcooling and the problem of ice buildup then this component stops the timer. after stopping the timer whichever components were connected to the timer will get stopped.

Door Switch

The lightbulb is operated by a small push-button switch located in the door frame area of the refrigerator. As everyone already knows that when we open the door of the refrigerator the suddenly lights get on and when we close the door then the light gets off automatically. So functions are possible with the help of this component.

Defrost Heater

This component is introduced to solve the problem of overcooling. When there is an over-cooling inside refrigerator then this defrost Heater gets on to maintain the hearing in the refrigerator. once the heating is maintained than with the help of biometal the defrost Heater gets turned off automatically.

How does Refrigerator works?

As everything is already explained above in detail. But all those are functions of components. In this section, we will see it with the help of an actual example which will help you to understand better with How Refrigerator works diagram given you above.

The working of the refrigerator starts from the Compressor. This compressor transfers the high pressure and high-temperature refrigerant toward the condenser. To keep the refrigerator works that vapor needs to be cooled and also needs to be converted into liquid form. And this process can be done with the help of a condenser only.

Once the process is done by the Condenser it transfers the liquid towards the filter components. The filter is basically for filtering the liquid and absorbing the wetness from the liquid. After this filtered liquid transferred to the expansion valve. This expansion valve is also called a Capillary Tube.

This Expansion Valve is used to eliminate the high pressure of liquid sent by the condenser and filter. So this is how the function of this component completed. Now it’s time to move forward to the Evaporator part. In other words, the evaporator is nothing but your freezer in which if you keep anything it gets cold. So behind this freezer evaporator is the one doing all the background work. 

Once the liquid gets cold in the evaporator the liquid gets convert into vapor form. This vapor form is transferred next to the compressor. And this process gets repeated until you turn off your Refrigerator. 

Working Diagram Of Refrigerator Working

Working Principle of Refrigerator Diagram

FAQ’s About Refrigerator Working Principle

How do Refrigerators make things cold?

To cool things in the Refrigerator, the compressor squeezes the refrigerant inside the coils and tubing that is already in a vapor state and in this way it raises its temperature then drains it into the coils outside the refrigerator, then absorbs heat from the inside of the fridge and cools the air.

How Cold is Average Refrigerator?

Generally the temperature of the fridge should be kept below 40 ° F (4 ° C) or more. The temperature of the freezer should be 0 ° F (-18 ° C). Temperature should be checked periodically.Instrument thermometers are the best and easiest way to find such temperatures and are usually cheaper.

Should a Refrigerator Run all the time?

The compressor has to work long enough to maintain the proper temperature for refrigerators and freezers. New refrigerators have new type of compressors that are designed to run from 80% to 90% of the time.

How long will the Refrigerators stay cold?

Refrigerator and freezer doors should always be closed to maintain cold temperatures. If the doors are closed properly then the refrigerator can keep food cold for about 4 hours. If the door remains closed then a full freezer will hold the temperature for about 48 hours.

Is it worth replacing the compressor on the Refrigerator?

Fridges can last for 10 to 15 years before they break down or cause any problems. Replacing a compressor with one or two years left on your fridge may not be the best decision buying a new refrigerator is better than changing only the compressor.

What Refrigerator uses the least electricity?

The fact-checked by our team is that Fridge with top or bottom freezers are the most efficient than any other type of refrigerator available in the market. Bottom freezer models use about 16 percent less energy than side-by-side models and Top freezer refrigerators consume 13 percent less electricity than Side by Side models.

How a Fridge Works Video Explanation

Video Explanation of Refrigeration

Final Verdict

We have already explained each and every component of the refrigerator with its functions. I hope our article was helpful for you. Although it was totally technical part. We tried our 100% to explain you in very simple language. Hopefully, you will not have any problem from now on how the Refrigerator works.

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